Franz Kröger

 

BULSA CHIEFS 

 

 

Perhaps the oldest photo of Bulsa chiefs

from right to left: Azenaab (Wiaga), Azantilow (Sandema), Anisomyansa (Siniensi), Aburini Akambong (Fumbisi); in front of Anisomyansa: Atebas, elder of Azenaab’s court; in the background (hardly visible): Ayidibe and Avade, elders of Azantilow’s court.

The purpose and year of the meeting are not known.


 

 

As written historical sources are very scarce, the following concise draft of the history of all Bulsa chiefdoms must necessarily remain incomplete and perhaps even incorrect in some details. It should be a starting point for all those who are interested in Bulsa history and society and who want to carry out some local research. We ask all readers to let us know about any mistakes and send us additions in the form of texts or photos.

Consulted literature:

Afoko, Francis Asianab (1970) The Ayietas (unpublished).

Akankyalabey, Pauline (1984) A History of the Builsa People, Department of History, University of Ghana, Legon (unpublished)

Awedoba, A.K. (2009) An Ethnographic Study of Northern Ghanaian Conflicts: Towards a Sustainable Peace. Accra.

Azantilow Ayieta: Bulsa Tengka Korumu / The History of the Bulsa Country (1988) Recorded and translated by. R. Schott, Münster.

Ollivant, District Commissioner (1933): History of Buli, Nankani and Kassena speaking people in the Navrongo area.

Rattray, R.S. (1932) The Tribes of the Ashanti Hinterland, 2 vols., Oxford.

Schott, Rüdiger: unpublished fieldnotes.

 

Bachonsa

A hundred years ago Bachonsa (Bechuansi) was one of the most important Bulsa villages. It was probably the first name of a Bulsa settlement that appeared on a map (cf. Buluk 2005,4, p.23). After the trade route passing Sandema, Wiaga, Gbedema and Fumbisi replaced the old routes, Bachonsa declined more and more in importance and inhabitants.

According to Pauline Akankyalabey (p. 37), Afeok, the founder of Bachonsa, came from Wiaga, but we do not know much about his successors. In Francis Afoko’s unpublished typescript on the Ayietas (p. 8), we find a hint that around 1912 the Bachonsanaab’s name was Ayuenala. The same author writes that in September 1920 the election of a chief took place, but he does not mention the new chief’s name. One of Ayuenala’s successors was Ayaafinyari, but here again any data or hints at a chronology are lacking.

The incumbent chief of Bachonsa is Atuebey, who was elected on March 25th, 1977.


Biuk

My main informant about Biuk chiefs and chieftaincy was Ataa Akankoba, the incumbent chief. He asserts that all his predeces

Biuk Chiefs

Anyaampo: first chief in the time of Babatu

Agigsa: reigned after 1901

Akankoba: contemporary of Kwame Nkrumah

Ataa Akankoba: incumbent chief, informant

sors were indigenous from Biuk and an immigration of Mamprussi, quite common among other Bulsa villages, never took place here. (Concerning the early chiefless history of Biuk, see Fr. Isaac Akapata, Buluk 5, 2009, pp. 34-41.)

According to Ataa, Anyaampo was the first chief of Biuk. Under his reign Babatu, the notorious slave-raider,

Ataa Akankoba, incumbent chief of Biuk and informant

attacked other Bulsa villages, which means that Anyaampo reigned in the last decades of the 19th century. Biuk itself was avoided by Babatu because of its densely forested surroundings, which at that time were a real obstacle to Babatu’s horsemen. During Anyaampo’s reign a group of Mamprussi came from Nalerigu and founded the village of Kologu. People from Naga tried to drive them away because they did not ask anybody for permission to settle there. Biuk, however, helped Kologu in this feud and enabled them to stay.

In the time of chief Agigsa, Anyaampo’s successor, the British occupied Northern Ghana, which they called the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast and made it a British protectorate. Ataa admits that groups of white people who went from Navrongo to Kologu were occasionally attacked by Biuk warriors. When my companion asked him why they did it, Ataa answered, "Because they were stubborn, brave and aggressive."

Akankoba, the father of the present chief, was a contemporary of Kwame Nkrumah, and during his reign Ghana became independent (1957).

Ataa Akankoba, the present chief, wishes for his village to join the community of Bulsa within the Bulsa District. When the plans to build a bridge over the Tono River (the present border between the Bulsa and Kasena-Nankana Districts) are realized, communication between Chuchuliga and Biuk, where the inhabitants speak the same Buli dialect and descend from the same ancestor, Avobika (Achula was Avobika’s sister’s son), will be facilitated. Chief Ataa regrets that Biuk is now a divisional chiefdom under the paramount chief of Kologu, after Biuk helped the Mamprusi strangers in their struggle to survive in this area.

Today the following four villages under subchiefs belong to the divisional chiefdom of Biuk: Jaagui, Sensa, Zinsa and Kodema.


Chuchuliga

The following description is, to a high degree, based on A. Awedoba’s discourse on the Chuchuliga Chieftaincy Affair (Awedoba 2009, pp. 113-118)

Chuchuliga Chiefs

Gonab Apirigab (= Semigah?)

Amaachana

Atuchiga Amaachana (= Altecheg?): installed on December 30th, 1907; dismissed by the British

Akaboba Apirigab (dismissed by the British)

Allan Asangalisa (appointed Jan. 10th, 1926; enskinned in February (March?) 1927)

Apirime: rival chief of Asangalisa

Joseph Adakula (1995-July 2006): rival chief of Francis, abdicated in July 2006

Francis Asangalisa (rival chief since August 1995; sole chief since July 2006)

and on his genealogical chart (p. 282).

The first Chuchuliga chief mentioned by him was Gonab Apirigab, who was succeeded by Amaachana. According to an entry in the Navrongo Station Diary (ADM 63/5/3 for October 16th, 1913), Amachenna (sic) was Bago’ (Bagao’s) slave seller, who had deposed Semigha (= Gonab Apirigab?) and replaced him with Amachenna on December 30th, 1907 (Awedoba, p. 114, footnote 92).

Although Atuchiga, Amaachana’s son and successor, had initially been approved by the British, he was eventually

Joseph Adakula

dismissed. The same happened to Akapoba Apiriga, whom the British had installed for Atuchiga and who was dismissed because he "failed to report the outbreak of an epidemic early enough to the Regional Commissioner" (Awedoba, p. 114).

In March 1927, Allan Asangalisa was appointed chief of Chuchuliga. His election and enskinment was done in Chuchuliga but witnessed by Afoko, then the chief of Sandema. From that point on, Chuchuliga came under Sandema (ibd.). Under chief Alan Asangalisa, the conflict with the Sandemnaab escalated. During that time, Azantilow dismissed Asangalisa and "single-handed[ly] enskinned Apirime as chief of Chuchuliga. Apirime’s enskinment, however, was declared null and void by a committee setup by the Governor to look into the case" (p. 114).

After Asangalisa’s death a dispute arose about whether the new chief was to be elected in Sandema or Chuchuliga. As Asangalisa’s son Francis Asangalisa, one of the contestants, refused to go to Sandema, Joseph Adakula Amaachana, the other contestant, was elected and installed as Chuchuliga chief in Sandema, while Francis Asangalisa "was duly enskinned by the kingmakers in Chuchuliga in August 1995" (p. 115). After a violent confrontation between the two parties, Adakula Amaachana abdicated and made peace with Francis Asangalisa in July 2006.

 

 

Doninga

 

Awudum Atong

My present knowledge about the Doninga chiefs is still very poor. By name I know only Akaachie, who, according to Francis Afoko, lived around 1912. Atong was one of his successors. His son Awuudum Atong (born in 1943) was elected chief on March 27th, 1972.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fumbisi

Leaders and Chiefs of Fumbisi

Afim: legendary leader and founder of F.

Awuuba: Afim’s son and founder of Yerinsa

Anyiamjutee: deposed by the British

Ayaajik: installed April 13th, 1915

Ampusiba: around 1912

Aburin Akambonnaab (Akambong)

Akanko: died 1978 or 1979

Clement Anyatiuk: since February 20th, 1979

Fumbisi (Fimbisi, Simbisa) was founded by the legendary Afim, who, together with his father Akanyanga, came from a river called Kanyanga, which is situated between Wiaga/Kadema and Kologu. According to another tradition, the founders came from Gambaga in the Mamprusi area (cf. R. Schott, Oral History...). Afim’s son, Awuuba, was the founding ancestor of Fumbisi-Yerinsa, a section from which chiefs are still elected today.

When the British occupied the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast, the then current chief Anyiamjutee was disposed and replaced by Ayaajik on April 13th, 1915 (Akankyalabey, p. 34).

F. Afoko (p. 8) mentions a Fumbisi chief called Ampusiba who reigned about 1912.

While Fumbisi was growing in size and in the number of inhabitants, its main market was still held at Naadema, some miles east of Fumbisi. It was Chief Aburini Akambonnaab (Akambong) who displaced the market to Yerinsa, the centre of Fumbisi. After his death, he was succeeded by his brother, Akanko, whom I met in 1973. According to Baptist, my informant, Akanko died in 1978 or 1979 by poisoning.

Akanko’s son and successor, Clement Anyatiuk, was elected on February 20th, 1979, after he graduated from Fumbisi Middle School.

Akanko

Clement Anyatiuk

 

Gbedema

In Gbedema there are two dynasties living in separate sections who have been the source of the chiefs of the village. One big compound, close to the Wiaga-Fumbisi road, is called Nakpakyeri (Old Chief’s Compound) and belongs to the Goluk section, while the previous chiefs of Gbedema have belonged to Nayeri in the Gbinaansa section. A detailed description about the Gbedema chiefs and the relation between the chiefs of Nakpakyeri and Gbinaansa has been given by Ghanatta Ayaric in this issue of BULUK (no. 6).

Chiefs of Gbedema

Atong (Goluk)

Amboru (around 1912)

Ayaric (Gbinaansa) mid 1920s - 1970

Apagrimchang Ayaric: July 10th, 1971-     September 6th, 2001

Nkrumah: since 2001 or 2002

According to Pauline Akankyalabey (p. 11), "Atong, the first traditional chief of Gbedema, went to Tongo and brought some fetish (boghluk), and everyone in the village used to go to him to supplicate for its blessing. Atong became so important that people soon recognised him as a chief." Since then a group of Tallensi have come to the descendants of Atong in Nakpayeri to perform sacrifices to the Tongo shrine every year. Atong, whose ancestors (in contrast to many other Bulsa villages) did not come from the Mamprusi chiefdom, lived in the early colonial time, i.e. soon after 1901.

I was not able to make out the section of chief Amboru (around 1912), mentioned by Francis Afoko (p. 8).

Chief Ayaric, who reigned before 1971, and all his successors have been members of the Gbinaansa section. After Ayaric’s death, Apagrimchang Ayaric, Ayaric’s son, and two rival contestants from Goluk (Nakpayeri) and Dabomsa stood for the new election. Apagrimchang, the winner, reigned from July 10th, 1971, until September 6th, 2001, and was followed by his son Nkrumah, the current chief.

Ayaric

Apagrimchang Ayaric (d. 2001)

Nkrumah

 

 

Gbedembilisi

 

Amoabil Atirikpie

According to informants of the chief’s compound, Gbedembilisi had no chiefs before the arrival of the British, who installed Atengboro as the first chief. He probably reigned in the first decade of the 20th century. His (immediate?) successor was Akannuemiena, who, according to Francis Afoko (p. 7-8), reigned around 1912 and was Gbedembilisi Chief when the first resistance against the colonial rule arose. If this is true, his reign must have been extraordinarily long.

Amoabil Atirikpie, who was installed on March 3rd, 1976, is the current chief of Gbedembilisi.

 

 

 

 

 

Kadema

Kadema Chiefs

Akomwob (deposed by the British)

Atigbiiro

Adaangabe (Atigbiiro’s son): April 28th,1974

Edward Felix Ayuekanbe Adaangabe:

September 16th, 1974 - September 21st, 1995

Akisikanbe Ayuekanbe: elected February 2nd, 2001

Akiskanbe, the incumbent chief

The first Kademnaab known to me by name is Akomwob. Like many of his colleagues in other Bulsa villages, he was deposed by British colonial officers (Akankyalabey, p. 51) and then replaced by Atigbiiro (Atigbuir, Atibiro, Atiguiro?), who was installed by the Sandemnaab Ayieta (P. Akankyalabey, p. 51). Edward Ayuekanbe Adaangabe, his son, was enskinned by Akansugaasa, then the Paramount Chief of the Bulsa on September 16th, 1974, and he held the chiefly office until his death on September 21st, 1995. When Ayuekanbe’s son Akisikanbe stood for the election in Sandema on February 2nd, 2001, he had two fellow contestants: Anbangpuringnaab, the late chief’s father’s son and Ajeuk, son of Anangaasa from Kadema-Kpikpaluk. During the election, when it became quite clear that Akisikanbe was the winner by a large majority, Anbangpuringnaab and all his adherents joined Akisikanbe, who won the election by an overwhelming majority of 131 votes; 23 yeri nyam (heads of compounds) voted for Ajeuk.

Akisikanbe, who was born in Mansia (Kumasi) in 1965, attended a secondary school and was a teacher before becoming a chief (cf. also BULUK 2001, no. 2, pp. 19-20).


 

Kanjaga

According to Rattray (1932: 400-401), the present inhabitants of Kanjaga are the descendants of two primordial ancestors: Akana, a Kasena blacksmith who immigrated from Kurugu (now Burkina Faso) and after whom Kanjaga was named, and Anyala from Konyon, a now abandoned village between Wiaga and

Kanjaga Chiefs according to other sources

Akanchoruk: contemporary of Babatu

Adachoruk: around 1912

Atibil: deposed by the British

Akinkangnaab: installed by the British

Akanfela:

Akansianaab Akanfela: November 18th, 1975 - 2000?

Akanjievari Akanfela: since February 14th, 2001

 Kologu. Anyala was the forefather of six Kanjaga clans, among them the Nyakpere (Nyakpensa), the chiefly clan today. The late Sandemnaab Azanlilow, however, told R. Schott that the Nyakpensa clan immigrated from Sandema-Nyansa.

Akanjievari Akanfela

In the course of history there were fights between the descendants of Akana and Anyala in which the Konyon people were able to obtain chieftaincy for their own lineage. Rattray mentions the following men as early leaders and, later, chiefs of the Konyon: Apiu, who died in a battle with Akana’s people, his son Abatwaa and, after him, Anwun, who died of smallpox. His successor Acholo (Acholuk) died at Navaro (Navrongo) and was succeeded by Akanab and then by Anyatua, the incumbent chief in the time of Rattray’s fieldwork. He may be F. Afoko’s Anyemtuik, the man "who, backed by ex-service men, tried to break away from Sandema several times" (p. 8).

Rattray’s list of Kanjaga chiefs does not always correspond to information from other sources. Akanbongnaab (Fumbisi) told R. Schott about one Akanchoruk, who co-operated with Babatu and was deposed after the slave-raider’s defeat (probably after the battle of Kanjaga on March 14th, 1897). F. Afoko (p. 8) mentions a Kanjaga chief called Adachoruk who lived around 1912 and might be the same person as Rattray’s Acholo. Likewise, according to P. Akankyalabey (p. 51-52) the British colonialists deposed a Kanjaga chief called Atibil and replaced him with Akinkangnaab (Akangnaab), a man who may be identical to Rattray’s Ankanab. Some of the discrepancies with Rattray’s list may perhaps be explained by the fact that chiefs often adopt different names after their installation or are known by different names to different groups.

Complete proof of knowledge exists only about the last three chiefs: Akanfela (whom I visited in 1973), his son Akansianaab Akanfela (November 11th, 1975 until 2000 or 2001) and Akanjievari Akanfela (since February 24th, 2001). According to James Agalic, the rival contestants of Akanfela and his son, Akangyievari, came from Ameria Yeri, a compound in which the descendants of Ameria, originally one of Babatu’s high-ranking officers but later a mutineering adversary, are living.

 

Kategra

Kategra Chiefs

Anchar: around 1912

Aninlik: in the 1950s

Amoaning (Azue Yeri):

in the time of Nkrumah

Awienboa (Nakpak Yeri)

Abukari (Nakpak Yeri)

Atumani Alimba (Azue Yeri): informant 2011

Atumani Alimba

From the early history of Kategra, the names of two chiefs are mentioned by F. Afoko: Chief Anchar, who reigned around 1912 (p. 8), and Aninlik, who was chief in the time when Sandemnaab Azantilow filed a lawsuit against the Mamprusi Nayeri (1951-1952) in order to regain the villages Kunkwa, Kategra and Jadema. Aninlik probably reigned before Amoaning, the first chief mentioned by Atumani Alimba, my informant in 2011.

In Kategra there are two dynasties competing for chieftaincy: one is associated with Azue Yeri (the present chief’s house) and the other with Nakpayeri (Old Chief’s house). After Amoaning (Azue Yeri), who lived in the time of Kwame Nkrumah, the following two chiefs, Awienboa and Abukari, came from Nakpak Yeri and the present chief, Atumani Alimba (whom I visited in February 2011), lives in Azue Yeri.

 

 

Kunkwa

I was given the following account on Kunkwa chiefs by Richard Yidaana Yakubu, the present regent of Kunkwa, who has an excellent knowledge of the history of his village.

Kunkwa Chiefs and Leaders

Asavie: (no real chief) immigrated from Nalerigu

Akpabil (Abili?, ): in the time of Babatu

Asaponing: elected on May 26th, 1906

Akwabil: elected on November 25th, 1920

Akumboti: first "real" chief of Kunkwa, conflict with Afoko

Apanga: (= Akparanga?) deposed by the British

Akurukpabil: after 7 years deposed and reinstalled

Anabil: Azantilow’s lawsuit 1951-52 during his reign

Awienkoa: not recognized as a chief by some people

Yakubu Ayisiyelung

Ayuekanbe Yakubu Hamza: high-ranking police officer in Accra

Regent: Richard Yidaana Yakubu (informant)

The first "big man" and "leader" known to the Kunkwa people was Asavie, although he didn’t, as Richard confirms, have the status of a chief. Like Atuga, the first known ancestor of the Bulsa villages of Sandema, Kadema, Wiaga and Siniensi, he immigrated from Nalerigu, though not together with Atuga. Rather, he accompanied the chief of Wulugu, a Mamprusiman, who settled in Kpasinkpe and became chief of that village.

Richard Yidaana (Regent)

In the Northern Regional Archive (Tamale), I found a note that Abili (Akpabil?) was chief of Kunkwa in the time of Babatu and died of wounds while fighting with the slave raiders. After a long interregnum, Asaponing was unanimously elected chief in a meeting of all Kunkwa headmen on May 26th, 1906.

On November 25th, 1920, Akwabil won the chiefly election against Natorma, his rival contestant.

According to Regent Robert Yidaana, the first real chief of Kunkwa was Akumboti. He was in conflict with Afoko, the Paramount Chief of Sandema, who, under pressure from the British, made people of Kunkwa carry wooden logs from the bushlands to Navrongo. This resulted in the separation of Kunkwa from the paramountcy of Sandema (see separate article in this journal).

Akumboti was followed by Apanga (=Akparanga of the Tamale archive?), one of Richard’s ancestors who was removed from office by the British. They gave the chiefdom to Akurukpabil, who, after a reign of seven years, was deposed by Afoko, the Sandemnaab, but was reinstalled after some time. During the reign of Anabil, Akurukpabil’s successor, the Sandemnaab Azantilow conducted an unsuccessful lawsuit in Zuarungu and Accra to regain Kunkwa for the Bulsa District (see separate article).

Anabil was succeeded by Awienkoa, but he was not recognized by Richard’s family because he became chief before the funeral of his predecessor had been performed.

After Awienkoa’s death in 1968, Richard’s father, Yakubu Ayisiyeling, was installed as a chief (Yakubu’s father, Azaala, had never been chief).

Ayuekanbe Yakubu Hamsa, who followed his father Yakubu, was a high-ranking police officer in Accra at the time of his election and could not give up this office. Therefore he installed Richard Yidaana Yakubu, his younger brother, as regent of Kunkwa. Richard had been a teacher before and speaks good English; thus, the interview could be conducted in English.

Today Kunkwa is a chiefdom under Nabila, the divisional chief of Kpasinkpe, who is at the same time professor of geography at the University of Ghana (Legon).

 

 

Sandema

see long article in Buluk 6:     Franz Kröger: Extracts from Bulsa History: Sandema Chiefs before Azantilow


Siniensi

The destiny of the Siniensi chiefdom in the colonial period resembles that of other chiefdoms of that time.

Chief Abagyi (Abaji) from the section of Yikpenyeri was deposed, and Abadiin Akpiok (Abaduin) from Siniensi-Akpiokyeri was installed as chief (Akankyalabey p. 51-52).

He was succeeded by his son Anisomyaansa, who was followed by his son Afulang Anisomyaansa on July 4th, 1963. Afulang was one of the first chiefs with a thorough school education. He continued to teach at Siniensi Primary School after he became a chief.

After his death, his son Gilbert Afulang was installed on February 28th, 1995.

 

Anisomnyansa Afulang Gilbert Afulang
 

 

Siniensi Chiefs

Abaagyi (Yikpenyeri): deposed by the British

Abadin Akpiok (Akpiokyeri)

Anisomyansa

Afulang: July 4th, 1963- 1994?

Gilbert A. Afulang: since February 2nd, 1995

Uwasi

Leaders and Chiefs of Uwasi

Jugon: before 1850

Awudiok: only a leader in the time of Babatu

Akobil

Apasukpe

Ambowen: installed by the British

Abiako Apasukpe: swearing-in 1973

Akuku: present chief

Abiako Apsukpe

Akuku

Ollivant (1933, p. 3) mentions a Uwasi chief called Jugon who died "about fifty years before the British arrived." Because of financial problems, no chief was elected after him for a long time.

Chief Akuku, my informant in 2011, told me that during the time of the slave-raider Babatu, a certain Awudiok was the leader of the Uwasi people, but he was no real chief. Awudiok’s successors were, again using Akuku’s information, Akobil and then Apasukpe. Ambowen, Apasukpe’s son, was installed by the British, probably in the early years of the 20th century and, according F. Afoko (p. 8), he was still ruling in 1912. When I attended the swearing-in of the Bulsa chiefs on June 23rd, 1973, Abiako Apasukpe was chief of Uwasi.

I was able to interview Akuku, the present chief, in January 2011. He was proud of the new developments accomplished within Uwasi in the preceding years: In the centre of Uwasi, near the chief’s compound, there were several Christian churches, a clinic and two primary schools. A junior secondary school was under construction.


Vare

I know only one chief’s name of the now abandoned village, namely Awenboleni Adebugu, who was installed on March 3rd, 1947. The small remainder of the ever-decreasing population of Vare migrated to Bachonsa where they constitute one clan-section today.

 

 

Wiaga

Before the colonial period, Wiaga Yimonsa provided the Wiaganaaab (Chief of Wiaga). According to my informant, Leander Amoak,

Wiaga Chiefs and Contestants:

Akadiri: first chief according to L. Amoak

Ayega: son of Afichoa, whose bogluk is in Nakpak Yeri, was the first chief according to Angmeenbil.

Awuudi

Atiim

Ajata

Akiruk

Akansomsi

Apik

Awuumi (last chief of the dynasty)

Ateng (Yisobsa, d. 1909), contestant: Abasing (Yimonsa)

Azenaab (1909- September 17th, 1947); contestants: Abasing, (Afichoa’s son, Yimonsa) et. al.

Asiuk ( April 4th, 1948 - 1988), contestants: Akanpaginaab (Awumi’s son, Yimonsa) et. al.

Assibi Aloys Asiuk (March 13th, 1989); contestants: Angmeenbil et.al.

chieftaincy was brought to Yimonsa by Akadiri, who left the Bulsa area as a young man and returned with the symbols of chieftaincy (a cowhide and a red cap). On my visit to Nakpakyeri (Old Chief’s Compound) in 2002,

Angmeenbil in 2002

Angmeenbil, one of the elders, enumerated a long list of former chiefs from his family (see box), but not all of them were probably chiefs in the modern sense. Perhaps they were rather leaders (e.g. in war) or just "big men" (dobreba, ‘wealthy men’ or pagreba, ‘strong or brave men’; Akankyalabey p. 18). P. Akankyalabey also mentions a Yimsonsa chief called Anankasa whom I could not place in Angmeenbil’s list. She notes in her thesis that, "...the first British who visited the town [Wiaga] called on the chief (Awuumi) to provide him with carriers. Awuumi, however, refused to do this and a young man from the Yisobsa section came forward and organised members of his household to help the Whiteman. When the ‘Whiteman’ got to his destination [Gambaga?] he gave instructions that any official who visits Wiaga should contact Ateng [the young man] as a chief. In this way, the chieftainship was transferred from the Yimonsa section to Yisobsa section of Wiaga" (p. 51).

Although chieftaincy never returned to Yimonsa, candidates from this section contested candidates of the new dynasty in every election (see box).

After Ateng’s death, Azenaab (1909 - September 17th, 1947) followed his father. Their family had lived in Wiaga-Chandonsa, but after Azenaab’s election he and his family moved from their traditional compound to the central crossroads (Goansa), where they built a compound, which, in spite of many renovations and architectural changes, is still used by the chiefly family. Azenaab was the first chief to profit from the new British strategy of "indirect rule," which gave the chiefs great power, greater perhaps than before British rule. In the rituals of the Sandemnaab Azantilow’s instalment, Azenaab was the most senior of all the Bulsa chiefs and had to perform many ritual and administrative tasks. The village of Kunkwa even wanted Azenaab to become Paramount Chief (Akankyalabey, p. 55), but he refused. Under pressure from the British, Azenaab sent some of the boys from his family to Navrongo school. One of these was Asiuk, another son of Ateng, who became Wiaganaab on April 4th, 1948. After Asiuk’s death in 1988, the election of a new chief took place in Sandema on March 13th, 1989. Assibi Aloys Asiuk was elected new chief out of the following contestants:

Assibi Aloys Asiuk: 287 votes

Akantoganya: 93 votes

Angmeenbil (Yimonsa): 66 votes

Kwame Atongdem: 20 votes

other candidates included: Aburinya Agoldem, Azuedem Azenaab, Aguumi Herbert, Anayang Peter, Akaboko Thomas, Apiini Thomas, Akanjaganaab Agoldem Albert.

Azenaab Asiuk Assibi Aloys Asiuk

Wiesi

Early chiefs of Wiesi included Apasungbe, who, after Francis Afoko, reigned around 1912 and Abuntor.

Roland Leo Amoabil (Sept. 27th, 1969 - April 11th, 2000) was a primary school teacher before his instalment and was one of the first Bulsa chiefs who confessed his Christian belief publicly. At his death in Sandema hospital, he was a member of the Bible Church of Africa. His successor is Raphael Abuntori.

 

      Leo Amoabil        Raphael Abuntori 2011